DAFOH http://www.dafoh.org Promoting Ethics in Medicine Mon, 17 Apr 2017 22:27:57 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.4 Petition to the White House calls to end forced organ harvesting in China http://www.dafoh.org/petition-white-house-calls-end-forced-organ-harvesting-china/ Tue, 11 Apr 2017 04:24:40 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122482 Dear Friends and Supporters, Knowing your commitment to supporting the DAFOH Petition to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, calling for an end of forced organ harvesting of […]

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Dear Friends and Supporters,

Knowing your commitment to supporting the DAFOH Petition to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, calling for an end of forced organ harvesting of prisoners of conscience in China, we are writing to invite you to support a new call to action.

In the past four years DAFOH petitions to the UN to end these crimes against humanity have been signed by over 2.2 million people worldwide. We believe you will be interested in supporting a new petition on this subject and kindly ask to accept this one-time email.

Petition: Urge Xi Jinping to end forced organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience in China.

The petition follows the official We The People White House Petition format. Your signature will make a significant difference in ending forced organ harvesting and will also highlight ethical values in general.

When this new White House Petition reaches the threshold of 100,000 signatures by the deadline of May 5th, the White House promises to respond to the call. Participation is easy and straightforward. Everyone over the age of 13 years can sign in support. Participation is not limited by nationality or geographic location. Citizens from around the world can participate.

Your signature can be submitted to the White House in two simple steps:

  1. Sign by using your First and Last name, type in a valid email address and submit.
  2. The White House will then send you an email for verification containing a web link. Once you click on this verification link, your signature for the petition is counted. You can check a box if you wish to be notified.

Deadline: May 5, 2017

As this is a one-time request there is no need to unsubscribe. Please consider forwarding the petition link to your family, friends and colleagues. Your support makes a difference.

Thank you for your consideration.

DAFOH

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For Immediate Release: Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting: China attempts to dodge scrutiny on organ trade with falsehoods about US transplant practices http://www.dafoh.org/immediate-release-doctors-forced-organ-harvesting-china-attempts-dodge-scrutiny-organ-trade-falsehoods-us-transplant-practices/ Mon, 27 Feb 2017 16:18:01 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122413   WASHINGTON, Feb. 27, 2017 — China’s top transplant official is trying to divert international attention from that country’s appalling organ procurement record by making false statements about the practice […]

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WASHINGTON, Feb. 27, 2017 — China’s top transplant official is trying to divert international attention from that country’s appalling organ procurement record by making false statements about the practice of transplant medicine in the United States, says Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH), a leading medical ethics advocacy group. According to a recent interview in the Chinese Global Times, transplant chief and former Deputy Minister of Health, Huang Jiefu, denounced the US as “the most rampant organ trade country in the world.”

“Some groups, for instance poor people and refugees, will, for their livelihood, come to America and sell organs,” Huang claimed in the interview, saying that in 2016, “280 foreign patients came to the US for transplants … far more than the limit” allowed in the US. The regulation Huang Jiefu referred to was abolished three years ago and replaced by an obligatory transparent reporting system aimed to include every non-citizen/non-resident transplant. Yet, with 33,500 transplants performed in the US in 2016, the 280 that Huang cites as a violation would represent a mere 0.83% of the total, far below the US guideline.

Huang also stated that the “use of death row prisoner organs was not China’s innovation,” but practiced first in the US. The Global Times quoted Huang as saying that during his visit to Harvard University in the 1990s, he was shown organ specimens taken from prisoners. In contrast to his claims, the provisions that permit organ harvesting from executed prisoners were legally adopted in China as early as 1984 and are believed to still be in place.

China’s claims of having ended the organ harvesting from executed prisoners in 2015 remain unverified. Lack of transparency and independent scrutiny are an increasingly insurmountable obstacle for China in meeting international ethical standards. During a conference on organ trafficking at the Vatican in early February, Huang offered a scant four-slide data presentation in attempts to allay international concerns about the continued practice of harvesting organs from prisoners, including prisoners of conscience. In a semantic attempt to brush off the mass of evidence on forced organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in China, Huang refuted the claims with a simple “nonsense” retort but failed to provide any counter-evidence.

Dr. Torsten Trey, DAFOH executive director, states: “We have considerable eyewitness accounts from Falun Gong practitioners of having been subjected to implausible medical exams and blood tests while in detention in China. If the claims that prisoners of conscience are used as organ source is ‘nonsense’, then why not allow independent international inspections in Chinese detention camps?”

Huang Jiefu has a record of making conflicting statements. In an interview with Australian ABC TV in 2013, he commented about organ harvesting from prisoners from an odd juxtaposition saying “before [the prisoner] died he found his conscience and found he needed to do something to repay society. So why do you object?” All global ethical standards condemn such practice. After an announced ban on harvesting organs from executed prisoners in 2015, Huang described death-row prisoners instead as citizens who have the right to donate organs, a gross misunderstanding not shared by the international community.

DAFOH is calling on the US medical community to repudiate China’s false accusations, demand transparent access to its organ procurement and transplant system and to increase pressure on China to answer questions concerning the practice of forced organ harvesting from living prisoners of conscience.

 

Contact:

Damon Noto, MD

Tel: +1-917-912-4858

Email: Damon.Noto@dafoh.org

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For Immediate Release: The Elephant in the Room — China Continues Forced Organ Harvesting; DAFOH Cautions Transplant Community On Falling Short in Response http://www.dafoh.org/immediate-release-elephant-room-china-continues-forced-organ-harvesting-dafoh-cautions-transplant-community-falling-short-response/ Tue, 14 Feb 2017 05:39:57 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122393 Following the admission by a top Chinese medical authority that illegal harvesting of human organs can still occur in China, advocacy group Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) calls on […]

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Following the admission by a top Chinese medical authority that illegal harvesting of human organs can still occur in China, advocacy group Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) calls on global health organizations and the international community to act.

WASHINGTON, Feb. 14, 2017 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ — Chinese authorities at last weeks Vatican Pontifical Academy of Science (PAS) Summit on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism surprised attendees with what many found to be a flimsy defense of organ transplant reforms and an unexpected avowal that forced organ harvesting continues unabated in China, despite official claims to the contrary. While only few conference attendees openly addressed the admitted ethical breach, the majority of the group did not challenge the representatives from China.

The Chinese officials did not offer any evidence to deny claims that prisoners, in particular Falun Gong, minority Uighur, Tibetan and Christian prisoners of conscience are subject to forced organ harvesting. While stating that seizing organs from prisoners is “not allowed” as of January 2015, the medical authorities from China did not substantiate their claims by providing any legislation or party directives that would prohibit it. The 1984 provisions permitting organ harvesting from executed prisoners have not been abolished. The Chinese government appears to want to have it both ways: credit from the international community for empty claims of ending unethical organ harvesting from prisoners, while legally keeping a back door open for a continuous supply of those same illegally harvested organs. 

During an interview with reporters, Huang Jiefu said that China has a “zero tolerance” for forced organ harvesting. “China is a big country, with a 1.3 billion population, so I am sure, definitely, there is some violation of the law,” Huang said. DAFOH stresses that prisoners are under the guard of the state and the military has overseen transplant hospitals, thus organ harvesting from prisoners—in contrast to black market practices—would occur with the knowledge of the state. Falun Gong prisoners of conscience have testified that, despite being tortured and neglected medically, they were forced to have extensive medical exams and blood tests while in detention, and that prison guards threatened them with organ harvesting. Given the extent of these crimes and the systematic exploitation over decades, liability must not be shifted to a few scapegoats. Responsibility for these crimes against humanity lies with the Chinese government.

The official PAS statement includes the recommendation that the “use of organs from executed prisoners and payments to donors or the next of kin of deceased donors, … should be condemned worldwide and legally prosecuted at the national and international level.” In response, DAFOH points out that the current public organ donation system in China is largely based on enticing payments made to families whose relatives have passed away. Poor families faced with hospital expenses are highly vulnerable to accepting money for the deceased relative’s organs. This is yet another ongoing ethical failure of China’stransplant system.

Dr. Torsten Trey, executive director of DAFOH stated, “Given the severity of the alleged crimes and that recent studies suggest that anywhere between 100,000 and 1 million prisoners of conscience have been killed for their organs in the past 17 years, demands for transparency and spot inspections are more than justified. The onus of proof is on Chinese authorities to prove otherwise.”

DAFOH is urging the international medical and human rights communities to act now and reject this latest attempt to whitewash the decades-old practice of forced organ harvesting and requests the following measures:

  • China be asked to agree to an initial, temporary phase of independent scrutiny to allow verification of the announced reforms. This must include unannounced inspections of transplant facilities and military hospitals, interviews with donor relatives carried out by independent transplant and legal experts and investigators under the auspices of the World Health Organization.
  • China be asked to provide clear, transparent, verifiable answers about the specifics of the law that allegedly ended forced organ harvesting on Jan. 1, 2015, and how this policy is enforced and monitored. The government should also provide evidence abolishing the 1984 provisions that permit the harvesting of organs from executed prisoners.
  • China be required to establish an open registry of organ donors and annual transplant data, including information on annual transplant numbers by individual transplant hospitals to meet the same regulations used in the US, UK, Australia and Europe.

The drive to integrate a nation as medically advanced as China into the international medical community is commendable. However, releasing China from accountability for past and ongoing crimes against humanity and allowing China to join the transplant community without a commitment to audit and transparency is unacceptable. The desire to integrate must not ignore the hundreds of thousands of victims and their families who have suffered losses of life and hope in the name of a brutal system of transplantation. The entire international community must take the victims into consideration, understand past transplant abuses, and make earnest efforts to integrate China’s transplant system with existing international law and ethics. Protecting the rights and interests of vulnerable persons is a core moral requirement for inclusion of any nation in the international transplant and scientific community and must not be bypassed.

www.DAFOH.org
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Contact:
Damon Noto, MD
+1-917-912-4858
Damon.Noto@dafoh.org

To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/the-elephant-in-the-room–china-continues-forced-organ-harvesting-dafoh-cautions-transplant-community-on-falling-short-in-response-300406831.html

SOURCE Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH)

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STATEMENT: China Attempts to Use the Vatican to Cover Up Forced Organ Harvesting Crimes http://www.dafoh.org/statement-020617/ Mon, 06 Feb 2017 18:10:08 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122370 February 6, 2017 The lack of transparency about organ sources in China is a mask of deception. The full scope of forced organ harvesting from Chinese prisoners of conscience remains […]

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February 6, 2017

The lack of transparency about organ sources in China is a mask of deception. The full scope of forced organ harvesting from Chinese prisoners of conscience remains unknown. The Vatican should not be misled by empty pledges of reform by an atheist government that persecutes its most devout citizens.

ROME — China’s long-standing practice of misinforming the international community, does not stop at the walls of the Vatican. After killing hundreds of thousands of people for their organs in the past two decades to fuel a profitable transplant industry, Chinese transplant doctors are about to present at this week’s conference on organ trafficking, organized by the Vatican’s Pontifical Academy of Sciences (PAS). It is expected that the delegation will present China’s transplant practice as “being under reform” in order to solicit the support of Pope Francis which they will then use as a certificate to whitewash their past and current practices. The Vatican should not rush to believe an atheistic government that has not confessed to any wrongdoing and has not disclosed the true scope of its forced organ harvesting practices over the past two decades.

To date, China has not disclosed any information about forced organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience, despite the enormous scope of compelling evidence compiled over the past decade by independent investigators. The same officials from China who have admitted to depending on organs from prisoners for years now come to pledge reforms but without disclosing their involvement in these crimes. The Vatican should not be deluded by China’s whitewash agenda but ask an essential question: How many Falun Gong practitioners, Uighurs, Tibetans and Christians have been organ harvested in the past decades? China’s lack of transparency is a mask of deception behind which it hides its sins.

The Roman Catholic Church bestows mercy on its parishioners. But before granting forgiveness, parishioners must confess and atone for their sins. Without complete disclosure of forced organ harvesting crimes, without confessing to what has been done to Christians, Falun Gong practitioners and other prisoners of conscience, how can China’s transplant community receive any recognition of their promised reforms or any forgiveness for past wrongdoings?

We want to alert Pope Francis to the Chinese government’s duplicitous manipulations and to urge His Holiness to ask for the details and the scope of what is a most egregious sin and a blasphemy never seen before in history: the ripping out of organs from vulnerable, innocent people who are murdered for their religious beliefs while the government sells their organs for transplants.

China’s allegations of reforms of transplant abuse remain unverified due to the lack of transparency. Without thorough investigation and proof that China has truly abandoned its cruel and illegal practice of forcibly harvesting organs from Falun Gong practitioners, Christians and other prisoners of conscience, His Holiness Pope Francis and the Vatican risk being most nefariously deceived.

 

So when the crowd had assembled, Pilate asked them, “Which one do you want me to release to you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?”

Matthew 27:17

Contact:

Dr. Katerina Angelakopoulou

katerina.angelakopoulou@dafoh.org

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For Immediate Release: Vatican Should Not Give Blessing to China’s Organ Harvesting Whitewash http://www.dafoh.org/press-release-020317/ Fri, 03 Feb 2017 16:29:04 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122348 China’s participation in an organ trafficking summit hosted by the Vatican science group comes despite no evidence that past practices of forced organ harvesting have ended; alleged reforms in China […]

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China’s participation in an organ trafficking summit hosted by the Vatican science group comes despite no evidence that past practices of forced organ harvesting have ended; alleged reforms in China remain unverified due to lack of transparency.

ROME, February, 3, 2017 — The Vatican’s Pontifical Academy of Sciences (PAS) should reject the Chinese government’s claim that its decades-long policy of forcibly harvesting organs from prisoners of conscience has come to an end, a leading physicians’ human rights group said Thursday.

Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH) says that the planned PAS summit in Rome next week on the vital question of the illicit trade in human organs should not go forward without taking steps to hold the government of China accountable for its claims that the country’s well-documented program of forced organ harvesting has ended. The implementation of the alleged reforms in China remains vague and unverified due to lack of independent, free inspections.

Huang Jiefu, head of China’s state organ transplant program, will be participating in the summit, casting doubt on the meeting’s ability to, in the words of Pope Francis, “eradicate this new form of slavery.”

Without transparency, verification of alleged reforms is impossible. Accountability for past transplant abuse must not be ignored. Without accountability, there is no reason to trust the government of China’s claim that forced organ harvesting of prisoners has come to an end. Hundreds of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners have been blood tested and killed for organs in China. Yet, instead of investigating these urgent concerns, China’s alleged reforms are taken at face value without independent scrutiny”, says Dr. Torsten Trey, Executive Director of Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting.

DAFOH is calling on those participating in the summit, including the World Health Organization and The Transplantation Society, to demand the following of Dr. Huang and the Chinese government:

  • Confirm that any forcible organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience, including members of Falun Gong and any other prisoner group, has ended and will not resume.
  • Provide evidence that China’s forced organ harvesting practices, authorized by provisions from 1984, has come to an end by publicly proving the abolishment of the 1984 provisions and make public new legislation that explicitly prohibits organ harvesting from all prisoners.
  • Provide the annual organ transplant numbers for each of the 20 licensed transplantation hospitals in Beijing.

The goals of the PAS summit are laudable, and should be at the forefront of every group seeking to promote human dignity throughout the world. But if China is allowed back into the community of nations without providing evidence that it has truly abandoned its cruel and illegal practice of forcibly harvesting organs, most notably from Falun Gong practitioners, Christians and other prisoners of conscience, the noble goals of the summit will be severely compromised.

 

Contact:

Dr. Katerina Angelakopoulou

Email: katerina.angelakopoulou@dafoh.org

 

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International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting http://www.dafoh.org/international-day-forced-organ-harvesting-2/ Mon, 21 Nov 2016 03:14:38 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122200 On October 1, 2016, the newly announced International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting,—with the help of many volunteers and supporters in more than two dozen countries—DAFOH has collected more than […]

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On October 1, 2016, the newly announced International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting,—with the help of many volunteers and supporters in more than two dozen countries—DAFOH has collected more than 4,280 signatures for a one-day-only petition to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.

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STATEMENT: DAFOH Rejects the Empty Rhetoric of Beijing’s Stage-Managed Conference on China’s Organ Donation http://www.dafoh.org/pr101916-statement/ Thu, 20 Oct 2016 02:20:58 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122232 WASHINGTON, October 19, 2016 — Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, an international human rights organization made up of physicians, medical professionals, and patient advocates, said Wednesday that the government of […]

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WASHINGTON, October 19, 2016 — Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, an international human rights organization made up of physicians, medical professionals, and patient advocates, said Wednesday that the government of China has once again failed to demonstrate the end of human rights abuses in its organ donor program, despite recent coverage in the Chinese media touting the success of so-called “reforms.”

At a recent Beijing conference on Chinese organ donation processes, held with the support of the China National Organ Donation & Transplant Committee (CNODTC), the International Society for Organ Donation and Procurement (ISODP), The Transplantation Society (TTS), and the World Health Organization (WHO), eminent international doctors allegedly made statements in praise of China’s unsubstantiated reforms. However, no evidence was presented that China now sources all organs for transplantation in an ethical or transparent way.

Doctors from around the world remain skeptical:

  1. China has no law against the use of organs from executed prisoners. The widely proclaimed ban is nothing more than media hype, and transplant leadership at the Beijing conference failed to provide any documentation of a “new transplant law.” In addition, a 1984 provision permitting the harvesting of organs from executed prisoners has not been abolished.
  2. A semantic trick used by China re-classifies harvesting executed prisoners’ as “donations,” dubbed “voluntary citizen donations,” and bypasses international ethical terminology making it impossible to determine the actual source of organs.
  3. Conference attendees reportedly visited pre-selected transplant hospitals in order to “see for themselves” the success of China’s touted reforms. Failing unbiased standards of inspection, claims that “Chinese practice is safe, transparent, and ethical,” per WHO delegate Dr. Jose Nunez, are misleading and premature.
  4. The deterioration in ethical standards of transplant organizations in this case is alarming, and they do not represent the majority of concerned transplant doctors and healthcare professionals worldwide. These organizations have a duty to their members and to the public to maintain independence in their interactions with China in order to retain any credibility. It is deeply disturbing that WHO officers and others blindly champion China’s claims: it is widely known that the Chinese Red Cross Society has openly implemented an unethical system of offering financial incentives to relatives of deceased patients, a practice that is condemned by four of the eleven WHO Guiding Principles on organ transplantation.
  5. Ongoing reports and a mass of evidence concerning China’s dependence on prisoners of conscience as the primary organ source cannot be arbitrarily denied or ignored. Prescheduled hospital tours easily accommodate a temporary halt of organ sourcing from prisoners of conscience for the duration of the inspection time. The delegation did not investigate the existence of this criminal abuse and did not provide a methodology of their investigation on this matter.
  6. It is of concern that the conversion rate, i.e. the actual consent for donation by the relatives of the deceased, has inexplicably jumped an unprecedented 50% within a year. Cultural taboos concerning donation, paired with widespread public distrust in corrupt medical practices, suggests that voluntary donation numbers would fail to increase. Yet, China’s hard to believe transplant figures typically follow an artificial course: from 1999 to 2004, the annual transplant numbers increased from ~3,000 to over 12,000, an increase of 300%. In 2006 to 2007, when China did not have a donation system, the number of living kidney donations increased by 470% within one year. On Dec 31, 2015, the number of registered organ donors increased by precisely 25,000 in one day.
  7. The claim that the “recorded usage of drugs given to transplant patients lined up with China’s reported numbers of transplants” as evidence is misleading and offers no reassurance as drug consumption of transplant tourists who fly in and out of China within days of surgery cannot be accurately assessed. The number of transplants can thus be far larger.

In conclusion: China continues to fail to address acute concerns and evidence brought forward by investigators like David Kilgour, David Matas, Ethan Gutmann and by organizations like Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting and the World Organization for the Investigation of the persecution of Falun Gong. Instead of providing conditions that allow transparent access and independent scrutiny, China used preselected, handpicked individuals from supportive organizations as a shield against real investigation. While delegates in rose-colored glasses applaud China’s claims of reform, real change might happen if China-critical, independent investigators have open access to unscheduled visits in transplant centers.

Reassurance of an end of forced organ harvesting requires completion of a to-do-list:

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DAFOH Rejects the Empty Rhetoric of Beijing’s Stage-Managed Conference on China’s Organ Donation http://www.dafoh.org/dafoh-rejects-empty-rhetoric-beijings-stage-managed-conference-chinas-organ-donation/ Wed, 19 Oct 2016 15:54:23 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122188 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: WASHINGTON, October 19, 2016 — There has been extensive Chinese media coverage of a recent Beijing conference on Chinese organ donation processes. The conference was reportedly held […]

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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:

WASHINGTON, October 19, 2016 — There has been extensive Chinese media coverage of a recent Beijing conference on Chinese organ donation processes. The conference was reportedly held with the support of the China National Organ Donation & Transplant Committee (CNODTC), the International Society for Organ Donation and Procurement (ISODP), The Transplantation Society (TTS), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Various eminent international doctors involved in the conference allegedly made statements in praise of China’s reforms. Despite the rhetoric, there is no evidence that China now sources organs for transplantation in an ethical or transparent way.

Serious concerns remain. First, there is no actual law prohibiting the use of organs from executed prisoners. The widely proclaimed ban is nothing more than an announcement reported in the media. Second, the semantic trick of re-classifying executed prisoners’ donations as voluntary citizen donations makes it impossible to identify the true source of organs within the allegedly voluntary system.

Next, attendees at the conference reportedly inspected selected transplant hospitals, in order to “see for themselves” how the new voluntary system is working. But this proves nothing, other than the capacity of the Chinese host to stage-manage an event. Delmonico has in fact admitted under oath at the June 2016 US Congressional hearing into forced organ harvesting that TTS has no capacity to assess reform in China’s transplant system. Nevertheless, some TTS representatives are engaged in doing exactly that. Instead of theatrics, the Chinese party-state should open up their system to independent inspection and audit. Claims that “Chinese practice is safe, transparent, and ethical” (Nunez) are premature until there is true transparency. Assertions have been made that data on the consumption of anti-rejection medication provide an accurate reflection of actual transplant numbers in China. In order to have any credibility, these data must be publicized along with an explanation as to how they account for Chinese pharma counterfeiting.

Fourth, it is highly concerning to see representatives on international bodies praising the alleged reforms, while guests of the Chinese government. These representatives have a duty to their members and to the wider international community to maintain independence in their interactions with China in order to retain any credibility. It is deeply disturbing that WHO officers and others accept the current system as ethical given that the Chinese Red Cross Society has openly implemented a system of offering financial incentives to relatives of deceased patients. This practice is condemned by 4 of the 11 WHO Guiding Principles on organ transplantation.

Finally, it is difficult to see this event as anything more than another propaganda event designed to distract attention from actual practices in China. The onus is on those who would champion China’s reforms to demand accurate, auditable data, independent access to practitioners and relatives, unscheduled visits to hospitals (including military hospitals) and open access to financial records regarding organ transplantation.

Contact:

Damon Noto, MD
Tel. + 1-917-912-4858
Damon.Noto@www.dafoh.org

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International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting http://www.dafoh.org/international-day-forced-organ-harvesting/ Tue, 27 Sep 2016 02:50:30 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=121969 DAFOH announces the first International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting on October 1, 2016, in order to commemorate the victims of state-sanctioned, forced organ harvesting. The day shall also mark a global call to the United […]

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DAFOH announces the first International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting on October 1, 2016in order to commemorate the victims of state-sanctioned, forced organ harvesting. The day shall also mark a global call to the United Nations to end the forced organ harvesting of the Falun Gong, Tibetans, Uighurs, and other prisoners of conscience in China. A one-day petition campaign to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights pays tribute to the victims of forced organ harvesting.

Petition for the International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting on October 1, 2016

A printable signature form of the petition for the International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting is open for any supporter and volunteer. We ask any volunteers or supporters to email scanned copies of the signed signature forms to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights until October 7, 2016 to:

Further instructions for the petition for the International Day Against Forced Organ Harvesting are available.

 

Statements of Support:

I sincerely express my condolence to those who were victims of the forced organ harvesting.  We will take an action from Japan so that this holocaust which challenges the sublime spirit of medicine will be eliminated as soon as possible through strong solidarity of people with consciences in the whole world.

ー Hiroshi Yamada, Member of the House of Councillors, the Japanese Diet, Sept. 28, 2016

強制的な臓器収奪の犠牲になられた全ての人々に対して、心からの哀悼の意を表します。崇高な医の精神に真っ向から挑戦するこのホロコーストが、全世界の人々の良心の力強い連帯によって一日も早く根絶されるよう、日本からも行動を起こします。
ー   参議院議員 山田宏

 


Sept. 29, 2016

Dear Members of the United Nations Human Rights Commission.

For many years, I have been deeply troubled by the mounting evidence of forced organ harvesting in China and elsewhere in the world.

The U.N. Human Rights Commission has a moral duty to do everything in its power to bring an end to this outrageous scourge, an affront to civilization and an affront to humanity itself.

I add my voice to the petition you are receiving, in the solemn hope that you will have the moral courage to act.

Respectfully yours,

State Rep. Michael F. Curtin

17th Ohio House District

Columbus, Ohio


“Mr. Speaker, October 1 is designated as an International Day of Remembrance Against Forced Organ Harvesting. Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting organized the Day of Remembrance and a petition to be presented to the United Nations calling for an immediate halt to China’s forced organ harvesting from detained Falun Gong practitioners, other prisoners and prisoners of conscience in China. Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 2016, Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting, is seeking an immediate end to this practice, as well as objective investigations leading to the prosecution of the perpetrators. And urging the Chinese government to end the 17-year persecution against Falun Gong, believed initiated by former President Zemin in 1999 and cited as the cause and source of forced organ harvesting from prisoners. By ending the genocide of the Falun Gong group, other populations in China will be safeguarded. This practice is another form of evil in our time and the United Nations will be further alerted to this crime against humanity, as are we.”

Hon. Michael G. Fitzgerald, in the House of Representatives, Sept 30, 2016

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New Perspectives on China’s Transplant Numbers: Unethical Organ Procurement from Prisoners of Conscience http://www.dafoh.org/new-perspectives-chinas-transplant-numbers-unethical-organ-procurement-prisoners-conscience/ Mon, 28 Mar 2016 13:06:45 +0000 http://www.dafoh.org/?p=122304 Research estimates that 100,000-200,000 Falun Gong practitioners in China have been subjected to forced organ harvesting since 2000 by DAFOH March 28, 2016 Abstract: Over the past two decades, China has […]

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Research estimates that 100,000-200,000 Falun Gong practitioners in China

have been subjected to forced organ harvesting since 2000

by DAFOH
March 28, 2016
Abstract:

Over the past two decades, China has expanded its transplant medicine performing in excess of 10,000 transplants a year. Historically, executed prisoners comprised over 90% of all organ “donors,” violating international guidelines set by the World Medical Association, World Health Organization and The Transplantation Society. China announced it would end organ harvesting from executed prisoners by January 2015, but failed to address organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience. It did state that the recently established public organ donation system would cover the loss of the prisoner based organ source. This study examines the most current officially reported transplant numbers and evaluates this data in the context of individual hospital statements.

Key Concerns:
Over the past two decades, China expanded its transplantation medicine from organ procurement of executed prisoners to organ sourcing from, what officials claim, is a public organ donation system. In contrast to other countries that publicize numbers of transplants performed by each transplant center separately, China reports only nationwide transplant numbers. As a result, transparency is limited and the possibility of garnering specific numbers is next to impossible. Discrepancies between national numbers and individual hospital rates raise grave concerns regarding the veracity of China’s officially reported nationwide transplant numbers.
China announced it would end organ harvesting from executed prisoners by January 2015, yet failed to mention organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience. Therefore, questions arise regarding the number of organs being procured and their actual source. These questions were recently brought to center stage when the WOIPFG reported a phone call with a doctor from China who indicated that “countless” Falun Gong practitioners were killed for their organs.[1]
1) Discrepancies in the transplant numbers: Chinese officials reported data
1.1) Atypical spike in transplants between 2003-2008:

Unlike other countries, officially reported transplant numbers from China are presented in an atypical and apparently artificial manner. Former Vice Minister of Health, Huang Jiefu, presented official liver and kidney transplant numbers at the 2010 transplant conference in Madrid, Spain. Based on these numbers, transplants doubled from 2003 to 2004, peaking at 12,265. Such a sudden increase within one year, followed by a gradual decrease, is unusual as it is unclear where the extra organs came from in 2004. If a new source of organs was available, the transplant numbers should reflect stability at a similar level. This pattern of sudden increase has not been seen in other countries. There was a total of 59,500 liver and kidney transplants between 2003 and 2008, in a country that had performed only a few hundred transplants by the end of the 20th century.
 In the absence of an organ donation system during those years, central questions arise: Where did the excess organs come from? Did international attention, triggered by the Bloody Harvest report in 2006, and the Olympic Games in 2008, contribute to the marked decline after the peak in 2004?[2]

1.2) Atypical increase in living donor kidney transplants in 2007:

Similar and apparently artificial transplant figures are shown in the number of living donor transplantations. In 2010, Huang Jiefu presented the numbers of kidney transplants from living donors. Before 2006, the living donor numbers were low. Then, within one year, the number of living donor kidney transplantations jumped from 300 in 2006, to 1,720 in 2007, a steep increase of approximately 470%, followed by a smaller increase in 2008 with a plateau of 0% growth from 2008 to 2009.[3]

China’s sudden steep increase of living kidney donations by 470% in one year would be implausible and unprecedented in any other country. Also, during that time period China did not have a public organ donation system. If this increase was the beginning of a growing awareness to donate organs after educating the public, etc., one would expect further increases in the following years, i.e., 2008 and 2009. It is implausible that China would have opened the potential for living kidney donations in 2007 and reached its end in 2008/2009. The comparison of a 470% increase and a 0% increase within two years suggests that the numbers are artificial.

1.3) China launched its new public organ donation system in 2013 and claimed to have 2,866 deceased citizens who donated their organs, and that they were able to perform 7,667 transplantations by 2015. In comparison, it took many years for other countries to build voluntary organ donation systems. A public organ donation system based on voluntary, altruistic organ donation requires informing and educating the public and building trust over time as there is a natural delay between registration and donor death when the organ is actually available. Therefore, the donation numbers of China’s newly established system appear artificial and have never been seen in other countries.

1.4) The artificial characteristics of official transplant numbers in China are even more obvious in the context of organ donation numbers on the website of the Red Cross Society of China which publishes numbers of registered donors, organ donors and transplants. According to the Red Cross Society’s website, within one day, between December 30, 2015[i] and December 31, 2015[ii] the number of registered organ donors increased by exactly 25,000, from 40,322 to 65,322 registered donors.

1.5) The official website of the Beijing University People’s Hospital stated in 2014 that the hospital performed 120-130 liver and kidney transplants per year. Yet, in September 2013, Dr. Zhu, director of the Department for Hepatobiliary Surgery at the Organ Transplantation Institute of Peking University, said in an interview in the China Economic Weekly, “Before 2010, almost all organs for the transplants at our hospital came from executed prisoners. We have done 4,000 cases of liver and kidney transplant within one year. These organs came all from death row inmates.” This is exemplary of the pattern of discrepancy between officially reported and actual transplant numbers.[4]

Summary: It is imperative to reassess the transplant numbers provided by Chinese officials when questions arise due to inconsistent and implausible findings. China’s officially reported transplant numbers are spurious. The actual numbers would likely be different, i.e., either well above, or below the officially reported numbers.
2) Assessing a realistic range for actual transplant numbers in China:

2.1) Many Chinese hospitals have reported performing thousands of transplants a year. 
In September 2013, Dr. Zhu J. of the Beijing University People’s Hospital told Chinese media that his hospital carried out 4,000 liver and kidney transplants within one year.[5]

Wuhan is reportedly China’s largest organ transplant center. The most famous local organ transplant facility is the Wuhan Tongji Hospital, which is one of China’s earliest and most authoritative hospitals performing live donor kidney transplants. Every year the hospital performs thousands of kidney transplant surgeries. The website claims to have the largest group of living donor kidney transplant recipients (i.e. patients receiving kidney transplants).[6] [7]

On April 4, 2006, the authors of the article entitled, “Japanese flock to China for organ transplants,” in Asia Times wrote: “Last May [2005], Mr. Suzuki [Masanori, the president of the Japan Transplant Organization] visited a hospital in a ‘major city’ (he declined to specify which city) and learned that 95% of its transplant patients had received organs from executed prisoners. The hospital had conducted 2,000 organ transplants last year alone, Suzuki said.”
Based on the analysis of WOIPFG, the hospital mentioned by Mr. Suzuki would be the First Hospital of China Medical University.[8]

2.2) The infrastructure of China’s transplant centers has dramatically expanded in the last 15 years. The officially endorsed primary organ source during this time period was the executed prisoners group. There was no public organ donation system in place. The Chinese government did not provide any information about any other noteworthy, operational organ sources. Yet, hospitals have invested in the transplant infrastructure and expanded the number of beds in transplant hospitals.

2.2.1) Case study of the Tianjin First Central Hospital:
 The Tianjin First Central Hospital invested US$20 million in 2003 to build a 17-story transplant facility. During the period 2015 to 2017, the hospital plans further expansion with a US$426 million investment. In 2009, the hospital floor plan showed “450 beds” used for transplants. The hospital stated that the “kidney and liver transplantation beds are at 90 percent utilization,” throughout the year. Provided that a new transplant recipient stays 30 days inpatient, this hospital alone would perform about 5,000 transplants per year, which would cover half of the officially reported annual transplant numbers for all of China.[9]

2.2.2) According to Chinese media sources, there were 150 transplant centers in 1999 and 600 in 2006. Later, the number of licensed transplant centers was limited to 165. However, the remaining unlicensed hospitals were still capable of performing transplantations. The WOIPFG found that over 700 hospitals in China are capable of, and involved in, transplantation surgeries. In addition, many centers have expanded transplant capacity in recent years by increasing the number of beds in their transplant departments. 
The differentiation between licensed and unlicensed, but transplantation capable hospitals is critical. According to eyewitness reports, transplant surgeries are not only performed in the large transplant centers, but transplant teams also go to smaller hospitals near these centers where they perform additional transplant surgeries. Thus, the number of transplantation capable hospitals needs to be considered. An analysis of average annual transplant numbers per transplant center illustrates the discrepancy between transplant potential and actual usage:
The following two tables illustrate that the combination of the official transplant numbers and the numbers of transplant centers are a statistical stretch.


Tab. 1: Model for average transplant numbers per hospital per year:
Average number of transplants for 165 licensed transplant hospitals Average number of transplants for 600 hospitals capable of doing transplantation
If the official number of 10,000 transplants per year is correct, then… 60 transplants per hospital per year 16 transplants per hospital per year

The second table below shows combinations of licensed and capable transplant hospitals and assumed annual transplant numbers. It is less likely that each of the licensed transplant hospitals perform only 50 transplants per year, and rather that each of the transplant capable hospitals performs 200 transplants per year. But it seems realistic that each of the licensed centers can perform on average—at least—200 transplants per year, or that the transplant capable hospitals perform on average about 50 transplants per year. In both latter cases this would result in about 30,000 transplants per year.


Tab. 2: Model for potential transplant numbers taking the expanded transplant infrastructure and numbers reported by Chinese transplant surgeons into consideration:
Sum of all transplants for all 165 licensed transplant hospitals Sum of all transplants for all 600 hospitals capable of transplantation
Assuming 50 transplants per transplant hospital per year 8,250 transplants per year 30,000 transplants per year
Assuming 100 transplants per transplant hospital per year 16,500 transplants per year 60,000 transplants per year
Assuming 200 transplants per transplant hospital per year 33,000 transplants per year 120,000 transplants per year

2.2.3) The number of transplantations performed is also reflected in the financial revenue of the centers. Aside from investments in the transplant infrastructure, as shown in the case of the Tianjin First Central Hospital, a look at the total revenue also indicates the growth of a lucrative transplant market.

The PLA No. 309 Hospital’s Organ Transplant Center Overview of November 17, 2010, shows that the facility’s total revenue through transplantations increased from 30 million RMB in 2006 to 230 million RMB in 2010.[10] This indicates an eight-fold increase in the revenue from transplantation surgeries within 4 years. It is reasonable to assume that this growth can be interpreted as a reflection of an increased number of transplants at this single hospital. A scrutiny of other transplant centers may reveal a similar trend of revenue increases and adds to the discrepancy in officially reported numbers.

China reports that the annual transplant numbers have been steady—holding at about 10,000 transplants per year—for the past 12 years. Yet, transplant centers report multi-fold increases in gross income from transplantation surgeries and invest largely in the expansion. This is a discrepant development.

2.3) Despite domestic organ shortages, China has an active transplant tourism market. Patients from Taiwan, Malaysia, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, Russia, Arabic countries, and other countries, travel to China for fast track transplants. Although there are more than 100,000 Chinese citizens on the waiting list, foreign patients receive priority and there are apparently sufficient organs readily available. In December 2014, the son of a Malaysian sultan received a liver transplant in China within four weeks of his request.[11] Desperate patients seek out and arrange for transplants in China through the Internet. According to eye witness accounts, there is a growing trend with transplant patients being offered a 10% recruitment discount for steering other patients to transplant brokers in China. This shift from the typical “organ broker” pattern to a “transplant recipient becomes organ broker among peers” pattern also  makes it more difficult to keep track of the actual transplant tourism numbers.

2.4) Other information about the secretive organization and large scope of transplants comes from a senior military doctor from Shenyang who revealed in 2006 that, “anyone targeted for organ transplantation would be taken away from prisons, forced labor camps, detention centers, secret camps, etc. At that point, their real name would be replaced with a code corresponding to a forged voluntary donor’s name … the next step would be to undergo the live organ transplant … this person is no longer seen as a human being, but an animal. …. All donors targeted are said to be voluntary. Falun Gong and other inmates don’t use their real names during custody. However, a fake name is used during organ transplantation. They become a fictitious person, but this person’s information is complete. There was also a signature on the voluntary organ donation form, but of course it was signed by someone else. I have seen more than 60,000 such counterfeit forms.”[12]

This surgeon stated that more than 60,000 organ donors did not come from the pool of the executed prisoners, but came from an undisclosed pool of donors, where counterfeiting the identity of the organ source was required. This raises a consideration: If just one senior military doctor witnessed so many counterfeit forms, how many more have occurred in other regions as well?

Summary: This analysis indicates that the actual transplant figures in China are several times larger than the officially stated annual average of about 10,000 transplants per year. Several hospitals report 2,000 or more transplants per year. Considering the following factors, it is reasonable to estimate that the actual annual transplant numbers for all of China range between 30,000-50,000 transplants per year, or more:

• There are 165 licensed transplant centers, and overall more than 600 hospitals that are capable of performing transplants in China.
• The rapid growth of the transplant infrastructure reflects an underlying confidence in the future abundance of available transplant organs.
• Dramatic increases in transplant centers’ revenues suggest a steep increase in the number of transplants.
• In Tab.2, the 30,000 transplants per year represent the lower end number. If the transplant numbers of the top ten transplant hospitals were combined, starting with the Tianjin First Central Hospital and the Beijing University People’s Hospital, the total would immediately exceed the officially reported annual national figure of about 10,000 transplants.

3) The undisclosed organ source: Falun Gong as primary target
The large number of transplants performed in China is dependent on a ready and reliable source of available and acceptable organs. The public organ donation system introduced in 2013 reported a significant yield of organs for 2015 only. This newly established voluntary system cannot explain the large number of organs used for transplantations prior to 2015.
3.1) Execution numbers examined: 

Chinese officials have admitted that the vast majority of transplanted organs have come from prisoners. The official explanation holds that the organs come from “executed prisoners.” Amnesty international and the Dui Hua Foundation estimate 2,000-3,000 executions per year in China, perhaps explaining only 6,000-9,000 transplants. However, the prevalence of infectious and other diseases among the convicted prisoner group, including other factors such as age, tobacco, drug and alcohol abuse make it highly unlikely that all death row candidates would even qualify as organ donors. Thus, the number of organs that could be procured from executed prisoners that qualify for transplantation must be only a fraction of the aforementioned estimated figure, making the gap of unexplained, undisclosed organ sources even larger.
In addition, there are ethical concerns regarding the procedure of giving consent. International standards state that prisoners, deprived of their freedom, are not in the position to give free, voluntary consent. Nevertheless, the possibility of voluntary consent versus use of coercion among prisoners in China was explored.

3.2) Voluntary versus coercive prisoner organ donation:


One might assume that the willingness to donate organs would be the same for all Chinese people, regardless of whether they are free or in prison, and that the organ donation rates would be the same. If the voluntary organ donation rate in the “free” population of China was less than 1 per million population before 2015 [13] , one might assume that the controversial voluntary organ donation rate among death row prisoners would also be close to 1 per million. For example, if there were 10,000 executions per year, statistically there would not be even one candidate willing to donate his/her organs. If we apply the average donor rate of the Chinese population, it cannot explain the large transplant numbers officially reported by Chinese officials (especially considering that not all donated organs would be viable). If the “consent rate” among death row prisoners approaches 100%, it would raise the issue of voluntary consent versus coerced participation.

3.3) Prisoner of conscience population:
If one applies the average consent rate of the Chinese population to the death row prisoners group, then the numbers do not add up. The next available source for such a large number of on demand, rapidly supplied matching organs would be prisoners of conscience. The group of prisoners in China’s vast detention system was explored.

3.3.1) UN Special Rapporteur on torture, Manfred Nowak, reported after his mission to China in 2006, that Falun Gong was the largest group of torture victims (66%), followed by Uighurs (11%) then by Tibetans (6%).[14] 
All three groups identified by the UN are reportedly victims of forced organ harvesting. While the report numbers reflect the extent of victim torture, they also indicate the potential risk for being subject to illegal organ harvesting. It is reasonable to conclude that someone who is subject to torture, where respect for individual human dignity is already lost, could also be subject to forced organ harvesting. It seems less likely that those not subjected to torture would become victims. The UN report suggests that the Falun Gong would have a 6 to10 times higher risk of being subjected to forced organ harvesting than Uighurs or Tibetans.

3.3.2) When comparing the size of the populations there are about 7.8 million Tibetans living in the Tibetan autonomous region and an estimated 15 million Uighurs living in Xinjiang province. There are about 70-100 million Falun Gong practitioners in all of China. The size of the persecuted population would support the observations made by UN Special Rapporteur, Manfred Nowak, when reporting on the torture victims in Chinese detention camps. Among the group of prisoners of conscience, Falun Gong is by far in greater numbers the largest victim group, making it statistically most likely to be subjected to forced organ harvesting.

3.3.3) In 1999, the Chinese leadership implemented the 610 Office, a Gestapo-like secretive network with extra-legal power having the sole objective of persecuting Falun Gong. The 610 Office operates throughout China. There seems to be no equivalent nationwide secret police group that targets Uighurs or Tibetans. While the later groups also suffer from severe persecution, it is limited to regional forms. Falun Gong is the only group that is targeted nationwide, and constitutes the overwhelming majority of incarcerated prisoners of conscience.

3.3.4) Falun Gong is a spiritual cultivation practice that aims to improve mental and physical health. In 1998, officials from the Chinese sports ministry stated that each Falun Gong practitioner saved the state about US$100 per year. Falun Gong practitioners do not smoke, do not drink alcohol, do not take drugs, are less exposed to certain infectious diseases, exercise the body daily and have a healthy life style based on moral values. Taking all of these factors into consideration, Falun Gong practitioners are likely healthier than the general population making them a more valued and exposed source for transplant organs.

3.3.5) There are various reports from phone conversations involving Chinese doctors that disclose the use of organs from Falun Gong practitioners. In 2006, a doctor admitted that at his military hospital the organs they used for transplant were harvested from Falun Gong practitioners.[15] David Kilgour, David Matas, and the WOIPFG have collected a large number of similar phone conversations and admissions. Therefore, this does not represent occasional or coincidental cases, but rather a systematic and widespread use of organs from Falun Gong practitioners.

3.3.6) In 2014 DAFOH published a case study that revealed consistent reports of implausible medical tests and exams in Chinese detention camps.[16] Reports by Falun Gong practitioners, as well as non-Falun Gong inmates and detained criminals, confirmed that it was almost exclusively the detained Falun Gong who were subjected to these medical tests and exams. Medical exams are costly, in particular when they are performed several thousand times. It is unprecedented that prison camps would have the budget to perform such widespread medical exams or that prison camp directors would allocate such a large investment on medical tests. While single eyewitness accounts may be insufficient, thousands of consistent reports from Falun Gong inmates cannot be ignored. The DAFOH study found several thousand reports, some reflecting hundreds of medical exams in individual detention camps. This equates to an extremely large investment of money spent on a large number of Falun Gong practitioners. Other prisoner groups are not reportedly targeted to this extent.

Summary: 
The network to procure organs from prisoners of conscience must have an organized infrastructure with a systematic and consistent rapid access to a steady source of healthy, tissue matched organs in order to accommodate transplant tourists within 2-4 weeks, or with prescheduled surgery appointments. The only group that is large enough and subjected to such a mechanism of systematic persecution nationwide is Falun Gong.
Taking the aforementioned aspects into consideration, this study confirms that Falun Gong prisoners of conscience are the largest group exploited for their organs and are at the highest risk to be the source of organs for the transplant numbers as outlined (under section 2 above).
Conclusion:


DAFOH holds the position that China runs a huge transplant market, far larger than publicly discussed, and that the majority of the organs needed to maintain such a market come primarily from Falun Gong practitioners.

This study suggests that in the past ten years China has performed at least 30,000 transplants per year. Until recently, there was no operational organ allocation system in place in China. While in many countries an average of 2.75 organs per donor is documented, the number in China is lower. The “organ-on-demand” pattern practiced in China, without an effective organ allocation system and wait list—until recently announced—must go along with the wasting of organs.

This report assumes the following:

• One organ source contributes only 1-2 organs.
• A maximum of 10,000 transplant organs stem from executed prisoners.
• 10,000-20,000 organs have been harvested from at least 10,000 Falun Gong practitioners annually.

DAFOH holds the position that since 2000 at least 100,000-200,000 Falun Gong practitioners must have been systematically killed for their organs.
 
Further considerations:

In most countries, transplant hospitals publish their own annual transplant numbers. This is not the case in China. Chinese officials provide only an annual, all-inclusive “national” transplant figure. If the transplant numbers of each transplant hospital were publicly accessible, it would reveal a true number of transplants taking place in China. This analysis suggests that China intentionally avoids publishing such numbers in order to prevent scrutiny. Therefore, the international community should request that China make transparent the transplant numbers of each transplant hospital individually.

China’s transplant tourism industry is hugely profitable and provides organs within 2-4 weeks for patients from different countries around the world. Procuring matching organs on this large scale within such a short period of time requires systematic preparations, including a large, easily accessible organ donor pool. So called “black markets” lack the infrastructure to provide matching organs on this large scale within this rapid, made-to-order time frame. Black markets cannot plausibly explain the large transplant numbers in China. Thus, attempts by the Chinese government to shift responsibility to the black markets are implausible.


References:

[1] http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/335

[2] http://www.dafoh.org/wp-content/uploads/Extra-abundance-of-transplant-organs-between-2003-and-2008.pdf

[3] http://www.dafoh.org/wp-content/uploads/Living-donor-kidney-transplantations-in-China-presented-in-Madrid-2010.pdf

[4] http://news.qq.com/a/20130903/001535.htm

[5] Expert: the reduction source of organs from executed prisoners will increase the number of patients waiting for treatment. (2013, Sep. 3). China Economic Weekly. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2013-09/03/c_125305093.htm; Archived Link: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/301.png

[6] Cut kidney Party rampant in Wuhan, female college student killed and dumped, parents petition but battered. (2011, Nov. 30). Sina Global News. Retrieved from http://dailynews.sina.com/bg/news/int/kwongwah/20111130/01082957519.html; Archived Link: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/537.png

[7] Introduction of Organ Transplantation, Institute of Organ Transplantation, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.tjh.com.cn/Section/IndexIntro.aspx?title=%E5%99%A8%E5%AE%98%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D ;
 Archived Link: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2016/64700_06405.png

[8] David McNeill and Clifford Coonan. (2006, April 4). Japanese flock to China for organ transplants. Asia Times: Greater China. Retrieved from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/HD04Ad01.html ;
 Archived Link: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/540.png

[9] http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1958171-china-hospital-built-for-murder/

[10] Overview of Organ Transplant Center. (2010, Nov. 17). Chinese People Liberation Army 309 Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
; Archived Link: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/35.png

[11] http://www.nst.com.my/news/2015/09/calm-face-courage

[12] http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/4/30/n1303902.htm

[13] http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-30324440

[14] http://www.dafoh.org/wp-content/uploads/UN-Special-Rapporteur-Manfred-Nowak_Mission-to-China_2006.pdf ; see page 13, No. 42, Table 1; Victims of alleged torture

[15] http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1728154-military-hospital-openly-admits-transplant-organs-come-from-falun-gong-practitioners/

[16] http://www.dafoh.org/implausible-medical-examinations-falun-gong-forced-labor-camp-workers/

[i] http://www.dafoh.org/wp-content/uploads/China-Red-Cross_12302015.jpg

[ii] http://www.dafoh.org/wp-content/uploads/China-Red-Cross_12312015.tiff

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